Publication: The impact of building automation control systems as retroﬁtting measures on the energy eﬃciency of atypical Norwegian single-family house
In this study, the energy savings and cost-eﬀectiveness of building automation measures in a retroﬁtting context are evaluated for a Norwegian single-family house. In addition, two methods for calculating savings from implementing building automation control systems (BACS) are compared: energy performance simulation and the BACS factor method proposed in EN 15232. Four retroﬁtting packages and four automation levels are combined to create 16 model versions. This study shows that BACS can increase energy savings and improve indoor comfort when implemented as a retroﬁtting measure. However, the relative impact on energy savings of building automation decreases when the delivered energy is lower. In addition, the impact of building automation on the energy savings is low compared to the eﬀect of retroﬁtting the building envelope. When only BACS are implemented, savings up to 21% can be achieved, but when an integrated solution is implemented savings up to 60% can be achieved. Finally, some directions for future work are suggested.
Keywords: retrofitting; residential buildings; cold climate; building automation control strategies